Of course, the devil’s in the details. Although the field of organoid research is maturing rapidly (see “2013’s Big Advances in Science,” The Scientist, December 24, 2013), with some organoids already moving into clinical studies to test drug efficacy, culture methods are still in their infancy, says Michael Shen, professor of medicine and of genetics and development at Columbia University in New York City.
Vision researchers at Columbia University Medical Center have discovered a gene that increases the risk for myopia in people who spending a lot of time in childhood reading or doing other close visual work.
“We live in an era of ‘Big Data,’ where there’s this idea that if you just crank through thousands of data points and use sophisticated statistics, you’ll learn the truth about something,” said Dr. Scott Small, a neurologist at Columbia University Medical Center. “And he showed the more old-fashioned, time-honored and more enduring approach: if you take a single data point, a single patient and investigate them and characterize them clearly and carefully, it could really provide deep insight into neurological conditions and the brain.”
Jeffrey A. Lieberman is chairman of psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center of the New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the author of “Shrinks: the Untold Story of Psychiatry.”
In the late 1980s, Mayeux co-founded what is now Columbia’s Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain. Although he has yet to find a cure, Mayeux has discovered a great deal about how Alzheimer’s is passed on from one generation to the next.
Biogen Inc. and Columbia University Medical Center will map the genes and clinical traits of 1,500 people with ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, in an attempt to find a treatment for the devastating neurodegenerative disorder.
Legionella bacteria are commonly found in aquatic environments — not only cooling towers but also rivers, wells, plumbing systems and hot tubs — and in most cases, people do not contract the disease, Dr. Stephen Morse, a professor of epidemiology at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, said.
“This suggests that dietary interventions could serve as treatments and preventive measures for depression,” wrote James Gangswisch, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center, and his co-authors.
Two years ago, New York state – with a larger population than Cuba’s – became the first state with a high rate of HIV to meet the criteria for elimination when only two HIV-infected babies were born.
New York’s largely unrecognized success is all the more significant given that, in the early 1980s, the state had the dubious distinction of leading all other states and most places in the world in the number of HIV-afflicted men, women and children.
“C. diff. is an infection of the colon …,” says Dr. Daniel Freedberg of NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center.
“Dr. Hirsch’s work was seminal in demonstrating that there is this flexibility of fat cell size, which provided an anatomic basis for a signal between the body’s adipose tissue and the brain,” Dr. Rudolph L. Leibel, a research partner of Dr. Hirsch’s, said in an interview.
Kicking off a week-long series on all the ways to work out, TODAY lifestyle and fitness correspondent Jenna Wolfe looks at the strengths and weaknesses of running as exercise, pointing out that only part of your body benefits from running, and she suggests ways you can do more.
Armoza then reached out to Pearl’s surgeon, Dr. David Roye Jr., the executive director at the Weinberg Family Cerebral Palsy Center, who connected her with associate director (and ballet enthusiast) Dr. Joseph Dutkowsky, who offered his expertise and services.
“There’s a lot of evidence showing that extreme weather can hurt people, but what we don’t know is whether those effects are getting worse,” said Patrick L. Kinney, director of the Columbia University Climate and Health Program, adding that scientists don’t have the long-term data needed to pinpoint how climate change is affecting health.
The research is limited, said Elaine L. Larson, a Columbia nursing professor and co-author, because many articles are done by doctoral candidates with no grant money, or by nurses working on projects supported by Western donors who focus on AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and a few other diseases.
Now, addicts, law enforcement officers and policy makers are all pushing to treat drug abuse as a disease and a public health crisis, not a crime or moral failing, and families are confronting addiction publicly in new ways, through rallies, online and in unvarnished obituaries. “This is part of a trend toward a greater degree of acceptance and destigmatization about issues pertaining to mental illness, including addiction,” said Dr. Jeffrey A. Lieberman, chairman of psychiatry at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Dr. Xavier Pi–Sunyer ran part of the study for Columbia University Medical Center. He explained how the drug works.
Eric Kandel, in early work on memory for which he won the Nobel Prize, showed that a snail that has been roughly poked will become hypersensitive. The lightest touch will cause it to recoil as if from violent contact. If it is touched again and again, however, it will, over time, habituate; it de-sensitizes — meaning, eventually, it will hardly respond at all, even to vigorous touch.
‘Psychoanalysis needs to change its culture,’’ says Andrew J. Gerber, a psychoanalyst and an assistant professor of clinical psychiatry at Columbia University. ‘‘There is an aspect of psychoanalysis that feels faith-based. You believe it because we told you to believe it. Because Freud said it. Because I, as your supervisor, told it to you. Because you experienced it in your analysis. And while I wouldn’t say those aren’t valid reasons to have an idea, they’re not reasons to continue to believe the idea is true in the face of other evidence.’’
“It also stimulates the receptors, but not as strongly as heroin,” added Dr. Adam Bisaga, professor of psychiatry at CUMC and researcher at New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Dr. Martin Leon of Columbia University Medical Center replaced Mr. Kissinger’s valve almost a year ago. “I am more energetic, people tell me I look better, and I feel much less tired,” Mr. Kissinger said. He described the procedure as easier and less debilitating than the open-heart bypass surgery he had previously. “There’s no comparison.”
“But if I ask what they’ll do with them, they often have a Scarlett O’Hara response: I’ll think about that tomorrow,” said Dr. Mark V. Sauer, of Columbia University’s Center for Women’s Reproductive Care. “Couples don’t always agree about the moral and legal status of the embryo, where life begins, and how religion enters into it, and a lot of them end up kicking the can down the road.’’
In the study, a research team led by Deborah Hasin of Columbia University analyzed data from a large, continuing University of Michigan survey of 8th, 10th and 12th graders, asking about their use of a variety of drugs, including alcohol, tobacco and marijuana.
“Whenever I present our work, I have to allow for laugh time,” says Nicholas Tatonetti, a scientist at Columbia University Medical Center. Not a common practice for a serious academic researcher, but then again, Tatonetti studies something quite unfamiliar to those more accustomed to the intricacies of biological and molecular explanations for the human condition. “I study the month people were born in, to see if that changes their risk of developing disease in their entire lifetime,” he says.
Dr. Tomoaki Kato of New York’s Columbia University Medical Center began performing the transplants in Venezuela a decade ago after he was contacted by Dr. Pedro Rivas Vetencourt, a surgeon at Caracas’ Policlinica Metropolitana. The Japanese-born physician says that back then he couldn’t even locate Venezuela on a map. But he and Rivas Vetencourt have now performed 50 pediatric transplants with living donors in the South American country, gradually building a large team of medical professionals.
Whole brain radiation was first used in 1954 and has long been a standard strategy for brain metastases, said Andrew Lassman, chief of neuro-oncology at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center. Though doctors have curbed its use in recent years amid concerns over its deleterious effect on cognitive function, whether the treatment or recurrence of metastases is worse for the patient has remained controversial, he said.
Doctors probably will use the combo less frequently because of this study, but certain patients still may benefit from it, said Dr. Andrew Lassman of Columbia University and New York-Presbyterian Hospital. The work should spur research on different ways to give radiation that may not harm thinking skills as much.
They do so for a variety of reasons, said Dr. Tanya Ellman, an HIV specialist and instructor in clinical medicine at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. Those without symptoms may worry about side effects of the medications, although the latest drugs “are much better tolerated than those from earlier years,” she said.
Those aren’t the only obstacles. Local clinics are often abandoned dispensaries with “no staff and no stuff,” says Sally Findley, a demographer and professor of population and family health at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University in New York. And because Jigawa is a sharia state, women refuse to see male doctors.
“We see a lot of patients [with celiac] and we have a lot of patients who have it and don’t feel better,” says Dr. Peter Green, professor of medicine and director of the Celiac Disease Center. “We found previously that about 25% of celiac patients use supplements or non-traditional medical products, and probiotics were the largest and most frequently consumed. Those people [who used probiotics] had more symptoms compared to people who weren’t taking these supplements.”
Op-ed Contributor: Pamela F. Gallin is a professor of ophthalmology and of pediatrics at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center.
At the same time, it’s possible that depression produces changes in the nervous system that lead to an overproduction of the stress hormone cortisol, said Dr. Olajide Williams, director of acute stroke services at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City. Excess cortisol can narrow the blood vessels and raise blood pressure.
It’s “an interesting paper” and significant that miRNA analysis can predict survival, says David Brenner, a radiation biophysicist at Columbia University Medical Center. In case of an accident or attack, he says, “it would help focus potentially scarce medical resources on those people who needed them most.”
That same month, Biogen formed a $30 million research alliance to support the formation of a sequencing center at Columbia University. “All of the companies are feeling like, ‘Oh my gosh. We have to do something substantial in genomics – yesterday,'” said Dr. David Goldstein, director of Columbia’s Institute for Genomic Medicine.
“We know cancer is a result in changes to the genes— so we are able to take a patient’s cancer, sequence all the genes in the cancer, sequence all the genes in the human body, and compare them to find out which ones (genes) changed,”Dr. Andrew Kung, chief of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation at Columbia University Medical Center, told FoxNews.com.
The precise order of growth proteins is critical to coaxing the stem cells to regrow a working meniscus, rather than scar tissue, as the scaffold is resorbed, says Jeremy Mao,director of tissue engineering at Columbia and lead researcher on the project.
Dr. Anne Marie Albano, director of the Columbia University Clinic for Anxiety and Related Disorders, has created a college-readiness program for high school seniors with anxiety disorders and depression.
Some treatments in development hold particular promise for women. Angela Christiano, a hair geneticist and Columbia University professor of dermatology, is hoping to begin clinical trials in a year or two on a procedure in which she dissects hair-follicle stem cells, grows them in the lab until she has several million, then injects them into the scalp, where, a very small study done with a human skin model has shown, they induce new hairs.
As Dr. [Stephen] Goff and his colleagues, Michael J. Metzger at Columbia and Carol Reinish and James Sherry at Environment Canada, reported in the journal Cell, it was not a virus hopping from clam to clam but the cancer cells themselves. They may last only hours in seawater, but that is long enough to reach other clams and infect them.
Tom Maniatis, director of the Columbia University Precision Medicine Initiative, discusses the future of precision medicine as it relates to treating deadly diseases.
“The general principle is the same: in the spring, wherever you are, whenever it becomes temperate, trees start to emit their pollen,” Dr. Rachel Miller, chief of pediatric allergy, immunology and rheumatology at Columbia University Medical Center, told TIME.
Other factors that can contribute to fatigue and overuse, and then lead to injury, are year-round baseball, throwing too many pitches in a single game and throwing too many innings in a game or season, said Dr. Christopher Ahmad, the New York Yankees’ head team physician and professor of orthopedic surgery at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City.
Jeffrey Lieberman, MD, author of Shrinks: The Untold Story of Psychiatry (Little Brown and Co., 2015), is chair of psychiatry at Columbia University Columbia University Medical Center and psychiatrist in chief of the New York Presbyterian Hospital as well as the immediate past President of the American Psychiatric Association.
Guohua Li, director of Columbia University’s Center for Injury Epidemiology and Prevention, described current medical standards for airline pilots as “outdated, inadequate and inconsistent,” especially regarding mental health assessment. “These standards need to be updated, strengthened and made internationally compatible.”
The documentary is based on the 2010 Pulitzer Prize winning book “The Emperor Of All Maladies: A Biography Of Cancer” by our guest Siddhartha Mukherjee. As an oncologist immersed in the daily care of patients, he wanted to pull back and research the history of cancer to better understand the illness he was confronting and treating. Dr. Mukherjee is a cancer physician and researcher and an assistant professor of medicine at Columbia University. Terry Gross interviewed him when his book was published in 2010.
Dr. Burton Edelstein, chair of the Section of Population Oral Health at Columbia University College of Dental Medicine in New York City, agreed that more research is needed on xylitol’s potential to prevent cavities. He cautioned that lack of evidence is not evidence against xylitol, however. For example, Edelstein and colleagues estimate in a new report published in the Journal of the American Dental Association that money might be saved by giving mothers xylitol products because they cut the transmission of bacteria that cause tooth decay from mother to child.
“His attitude toward this kind of food is a little worrisome,” said David Seres, MD, director of medical nutrition at the Columbia University Medical Center in New York, adding that he thinks such investments send the worst kind of message to America. “He is not what I would call an ideal role model in eating and his attitude toward nutrition in general.”
While it’s typically difficult to draw conclusions when looking for deaths among a group of people, Dr. Andrew E. Moran from Columbia University Medical Center said it’s appropriate for this trial. “Because the survival is so poor in these very ill people, it’s not unreasonable to recruit a fairly small sample size because the probability of adverse events and death is very high in these patients,” said Moran, who was not involved with the new study.
Though celiac disease is four to five times more common now than 50 years ago, only about 1 percent of the world’s population is believed to suffer from it, and just a fraction of those have been diagnosed. Dr. Peter Green, director of the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center, says more than 80 percent of people with celiac disease don’t realize they have it.